The scars of racism in America have once again been laid bare, this time by COVID-19. Black and Brown people have higher morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and yet have lower vaccination rates. Such health inequities between Europeans, Africans, and Indigenous people in the United States have existed for more than 500 years and still persist today. Physicians often treat people of different races and ethnicities differently (1, 2). Racism or structural racism contributes to some of these treatment differences, but there are situations in which physicians deliberately treat people of different races differently because they believe that it is ...

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