Original Research18 September 2018
A Prospective Study
    Author, Article, and Disclosure Information



    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy may help endoscopists distinguish neoplastic polyps (adenomas) requiring resection from nonneoplastic polyps not requiring resection, potentially reducing cost.


    To evaluate the performance of real-time CAD with endocytoscopes (×520 ultramagnifying colonoscopes providing microvascular and cellular visualization of colorectal polyps after application of the narrow-band imaging [NBI] and methylene blue staining modes, respectively).


    Single-group, open-label, prospective study. (UMIN [University hospital Medical Information Network] Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000027360).


    University hospital.


    791 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy and 23 endoscopists.


    Real-time use of CAD during colonoscopy.


    CAD-predicted pathology (neoplastic or nonneoplastic) of detected diminutive polyps (≤5 mm) on the basis of real-time outputs compared with pathologic diagnosis of the resected specimen (gold standard). The primary end point was whether CAD with the stained mode produced a negative predictive value (NPV) of 90% or greater for identifying diminutive rectosigmoid adenomas, the threshold required to “diagnose-and-leave” nonneoplastic polyps. Best- and worst-case scenarios assumed that polyps lacking either CAD diagnosis or pathology were true- or false-positive or true- or false-negative, respectively.


    Overall, 466 diminutive (including 250 rectosigmoid) polyps from 325 patients were assessed by CAD, with a pathologic prediction rate of 98.1% (457 of 466). The NPVs of CAD for diminutive rectosigmoid adenomas were 96.4% (95% CI, 91.8% to 98.8%) (best-case scenario) and 93.7% (CI, 88.3% to 97.1%) (worst-case scenario) with stained mode and 96.5% (CI, 92.1% to 98.9%) (best-case scenario) and 95.2% (CI, 90.3% to 98.0%) (worst-case scenario) with NBI.


    Two thirds of the colonoscopies were conducted by experts who had each experienced more than 200 endocytoscopies; 186 polyps not assessed by CAD were excluded.


    Real-time CAD can achieve the performance level required for a diagnose-and-leave strategy for diminutive, nonneoplastic rectosigmoid polyps.

    Primary Funding Source:

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


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