Until recently, the silent epidemic of viral hepatitis has eluded a unified national public health strategy for controlling morbidity and mortality. Consequently, untreated chronic viral hepatitis affects between 3.5 and 5.3 million Americans and continues to fuel rising rates of progressive liver disease, liver failure, and liver cancer (1). Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects some 2.7 million noninstitutionalized Americans (2), represents the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States (3), and has caused more deaths annually than HIV since 2007 (4). Although effective vaccination strategies have contributed to a decline in new cases of acute hepatitis ...


  • 1. Institute of MedicineHepatitis and Liver Cancer. A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C. Washington, DC: National Academies Pr; 2010. Google Scholar
  • 2. Denniston MMJiles RBDrobeniuc JKlevens MWard JWMcQuillan GMHolmberg SDChronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2010. Ann Intern Med2014;160:293-300. LinkGoogle Scholar
  • 3. Berg CLSteffick DEEdwards EBHeimbach JKMagee JCWashburn WKet alLiver and intestine transplantation in the United States 1998–2007. Am J Transplant2009;9:907-31. [PMID: 19341415] CrossrefMedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 4. Ly KNXing JKlevens RMJiles RBWard JWHolmberg SDThe increasing burden of mortality from viral hepatitis in the United States between 1999 and 2007. Ann Intern Med2012;156:271-8. [PMID: 22351712] LinkGoogle Scholar
  • 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis Statistics & Surveillance: Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis–United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/2011Surveillance/ on 23 January 2014. Google Scholar
  • 6. Combating the Silent Epidemic of Viral Hepatitis: Action Plan for the Prevention, Care, and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2011. Accessed at www.hhs.gov/ash/initiatives/hepatitis/actionplanviralhepatitis2011.pdf on 23 January 2014. Google Scholar
  • 7. Ngo-Metzger QWard JWValdiserri ROExpanded hepatitis C virus screening recommendations promote opportunities for care and cure [Editorial]. Ann Intern Med2013;159:364-5. [PMID: 23797155] LinkGoogle Scholar
  • 8. Valdiserri ROKhalsa JDan CHolmberg SZibbell JHoltzman Det alConfronting the emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus among young injection drug users. Am J Public Health2014;:e1-6. Google Scholar
  • 9. Martin NKVickerman PGrebely JHellard MHutchinson SJLima VDet alHepatitis C virus treatment for prevention among people who inject drugs: Modeling treatment scale-up in the age of direct-acting antivirals. Hepatology2013;58:1598-609. [PMID: 23553643] CrossrefMedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 10. Action Plan for the Prevention, Care and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis: Updated, 2014–2016. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed at http://aids.gov/pdf/viral-hepatitis-action-plan.pdf on 4 April 2014. Google Scholar