Articles
15 August 2006

Using Standardized Serum Creatinine Values in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate

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Publication: Annals of Internal Medicine
Volume 145, Number 4

Abstract

Background:

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates facilitate detection of chronic kidney disease but require calibration of the serum creatinine assay to the laboratory that developed the equation. The 4-variable equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study has been reexpressed for use with a standardized assay.

Objective:

To describe the performance of the revised 4-variable MDRD Study equation and compare it with the performance of the 6-variable MDRD Study and Cockcroft–Gault equations.

Design:

Comparison of estimated and measured GFR.

Setting:

15 clinical centers participating in a randomized, controlled trial.

Patients:

1628 patients with chronic kidney disease participating in the MDRD Study.

Measurements:

Serum creatinine levels were calibrated to an assay traceable to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Glomerular filtration rate was measured as urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate.

Results:

Mean measured GFR was 39.8 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (SD, 21.2). Accuracy and precision of the revised 4-variable equation were similar to those of the original 6-variable equation and better than in the Cockcroft–Gault equation, even when the latter was corrected for bias, with 90%, 91%, 60%, and 83% of estimates within 30% of measured GFR, respectively. Differences between measured and estimated GFR were greater for all equations when the estimated GFR was 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater.

Limitations:

The MDRD Study included few patients with a GFR greater than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Equations were not compared in a separate study sample.

Conclusions:

The 4-variable MDRD Study equation provides reasonably accurate GFR estimates in patients with chronic kidney disease and a measured GFR of less than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2. By using the reexpressed MDRD Study equation with the standardized serum creatinine assay, clinical laboratories can report more accurate GFR estimates.
*For a list of investigators of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, see the Appendix.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Annals of Internal Medicine
Annals of Internal Medicine
Volume 145Number 415 August 2006
Pages: 247 - 254

History

Published online: 15 August 2006
Published in issue: 15 August 2006

Keywords

Authors

Affiliations

Andrew S. Levey, MD
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Josef Coresh, MD, PhD, MHS
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Tom Greene, PhD
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Lesley A. Stevens, MD, MS
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Yaping (Lucy) Zhang, MS
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Stephen Hendriksen, BA
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
John W. Kusek, PhD
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Frederick Van Lente, PhD
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
for the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration*
From Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank John Eckfeldt, PhD, and Amy Deysher for assistance.
Grant Support: By grants UO1 DK 053869, UO1 DK 067651, and UO1 DK 35073.
Disclosures: Grants received: A.S. Levey (National Institutes of Health, Amgen, National Kidney Foundation).
Corresponding Author: Andrew S. Levey, MD, Division of Nephrology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Box 391, Boston, MA 02111.
Correction: This article was corrected on 16 March 2021 to correct a statement about ascertainment of the participants' ethnicity.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Levey and Stevens, Ms. Zhang, and Mr. Hendriksen: Division of Nephrology, Tufts-New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Box 391, Boston, MA 02111.
Dr. Coresh: Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, 2024 East Monument Street, 2-645, Baltimore, MD 21205.
Drs. Greene and Van Lente: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195.
Dr. Kusek: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 617, Bethesda, MD 20817.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, L.A. Stevens, Y. Zhang, S. Hendriksen, J.W. Kusek, F. Van Lente.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, L.A. Stevens, J.W. Kusek, F. Van Lente.
Drafting of the article: A.S. Levey, L.A. Stevens.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, L.A. Stevens, Y. Zhang, S. Hendriksen, J.W. Kusek, F. Van Lente.
Final approval of the article: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, L.A. Stevens, Y. Zhang, S. Hendriksen, J.W. Kusek, F. Van Lente.
Provision of study materials or patients: A.S. Levey, T. Greene, J.W. Kusek, F. Van Lente.
Statistical expertise: J. Coresh, T. Greene, Y. Zhang.
Obtaining of funding: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, F. Van Lente.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, L.A. Stevens, Y. Zhang, S. Hendriksen, J.W. Kusek, F. Van Lente.
Collection and assembly of data: A.S. Levey, J. Coresh, T. Greene, Y. Zhang, S. Hendriksen, F. Van Lente.

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Andrew S. Levey, Josef Coresh, Tom Greene, et al; for the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration*. Using Standardized Serum Creatinine Values in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate. Ann Intern Med.2006;145:247-254. [Epub 15 August 2006]. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00004

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